"[357] He deduced from the Gita the doctrine that "the functions of a man ought to be determined by his natural turn, gift, and capacities",[357] that the individual should "develop freely"[357] and thereby would be best able to serve society. This would date the text as transmitted by the oral tradition to the later centuries of the 1st-millennium BCE, and the first written version probably to the 2nd or 3rd century CE. [172][173][174][note 15] In the Upanishads that preceded the Gita such as the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the salvific goal is to know and realize this Self, a knowledge that is devoid of the delusions of instinctive "I, mine, egoistic" typically connected with the body, material life processes that are impermanent and transient. What had previously been known of Indian literature in Germany had been translated from the English. Only one condition! [344] This argument, states Hacker, is an attempt to "universalize Hinduism". [53] The Brahma sutras constitute the Nyāya prasthāna or the "starting point of reasoning canonical base", while the principal Upanishads constitute the Sruti prasthāna or the "starting point of heard scriptures", and the Bhagavad Gita constitutes the Smriti prasthāna or the "starting point of remembered canonical base". [115] The war feels evil to Arjuna and he questions the morality of war. [366] Through the message of the Gita, Vivekananda sought to energise the people of India to reclaim their dormant but strong identity. [182] However, this action should "not simply follow spiritual injunctions", without any attachment to personal rewards or because of craving for fruits. [368] Sivananda called Bhagavad Gita "the most precious jewel of Hindu literature" and suggested its introduction into the curriculum of Indian schools and colleges. For Vivekananda, the Gita was an egalitarian scripture that rejected caste and other hierarchies because of its verses such as 13.27—28, which states "He who sees the Supreme Lord dwelling equally in all beings, the Imperishable in things that perish, he sees verily. [279][280] Shankara interprets the Gita in a monist, nondualistic tradition (Advaita Vedanta). Theirs is true renunciation. Filled with introspection and questions about the meaning and purpose of life, he asks Krishna about the nature of life, soul, death, afterlife and whether there is a deeper meaning and reality. [46], Linguistically, the Bhagavad Gita is in classical Sanskrit of the early variety, states the Gita scholar Winthrop Sargeant. [79][80][81] According to Galvin Flood, the teachings in Gita differ from other Indian religions that encouraged extreme austerity and self-torture of various forms (karsayanta). Krishna is presented as a teacher who "drives Arjuna and the reader beyond initial preconceptions". The Gita is a cohesively knit pedagogic text, not a list of norms. The Bhagavad Gita and the Atomic Bomb. An authentic manuscript of the Gita with 745 verses has not been found. Krishna is all and One. It openly synthesizes and inclusively accepts multiple ways of life, harmonizing spiritual pursuits through action (karma), knowledge (gyaana), and devotion (bhakti). Arjuna is distressed and in sorrow. According to the Indologist Ananya Vajpeyi, the Gita does not elaborate on the means or stages of war, nor on ahimsa, except for stating that "ahimsa is virtuous and characterizes an awakened, steadfast, ethical man" in verses such as 13.7–10 and 16.1–5. [378], "Gita" redirects here. [210] Therefore, 'Field of action' implies the field of righteousness, where truth will eventually triumph, states Fowler. [248] These translations vary,[249] and are in part an interpretative reconstruction of the original Sanskrit text that differ in their "friendliness to the reader",[250] and in the amount of "violence to the original Gita text" that the translation does. T. S. Eliot (1888-1965) had some knowledge and regard for the Upanishads, which are the storehouse of the invaluable perennial treasures of human wisdom, and some of his poems reflect the message of the Upanishads. [58], Some Hindus give it the status of an Upanishad, and some consider it to be a "revealed text". [83] According to Winthrop Sargeant, the text acknowledges that some individuals are more reflective and intellectual, some affective and engaged by their emotions, some are action driven, yet others favor experimenting and exploring what works. [210] According to Fowler, dharma in this verse may refer to the sanatana dharma, "what Hindus understand as their religion, for it is a term that encompasses wide aspects of religious and traditional thought and is more readily used for religion". And if … In the Gita, the soul of each human being is considered to be identical to every other human being and all beings, but it "does not support an identity with the Brahman", according to Fowler. [108][web 3] For example, Swami Chidbhavananda describes each of the eighteen chapters as a separate yoga because each chapter, like yoga, "trains the body and the mind". [18][112][113] The second chapter begins the philosophical discussions and teachings found in Gita. In addition to being the author, he is also a major character in the Mahabharata, although not the Gita. The Indologist Robert Minor, and others,[web 1] in contrast, state the Gita is "more clearly defined as a synthesis of Vedanta, Yoga and Samkhya" philosophies of Hinduism. It teaches both the abstract and the personalized Brahman (God), the latter in the form of Krishna. [227], Swami Nikhilananda, takes Arjuna as an allegory of Ātman, Krishna as an allegory of Brahman, Arjuna's chariot as the body, and Dhritarashtra as the ignorance filled mind. [265] R. Raghava Iyengar translated the Gita into Tamil in sandam metre poetic form. To Ambedkar, states Klausen, it is a text of "mostly barbaric, religious particularisms" offering "a defence of the kshatriya duty to make war and kill, the assertion that varna derives from birth rather than worth or aptitude, and the injunction to perform karma" neither perfunctorily nor egotistically. [115] Thomas Merton, the Trappist monk and author of books on Zen Buddhism, concurs with Gandhi and states that the Gita is not teaching violence nor propounding a "make war" ideology. The actual dates of composition of the Gita remain unresolved. In light of the Ahimsa (non-violence) teachings in Hindu scriptures, the Gita has been criticized as violating the Ahimsa value, or alternatively, as supporting political violence. Whenever dharma declines and the purpose of life is forgotten by men, says Krishna, he returns to re-establish dharma. Action leads to knowledge, while selfless action leads to spiritual awareness, state the last verses of this chapter. This is how the flower of devotion evolves into the fruit of knowledge. In Minor's view, the Harvard scholar Franklin Edgerton's English translation and Richard Garbe's German translation are closer to the text than many others. During the independence movement in India, Hindus considered active "burning and drowning of British goods" while technically illegal under colonial legislation, were viewed as a moral and just war for the sake of liberty and righteous values of the type Gita discusses. For Aurobindo, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, and Chinmayananda as notable commentators see: For Aurobindo as notable commentators, see: Stevenson, Robert W., "Tilak and the Bhagavadgita's Doctrine of Karmayoga", in: Jordens, J.T.F., "Gandhi and the Bhagavadgita", in: A shorter edition, omitting the bulk of Desai's additional commentary, has been published as: harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSahadeo2011 (, International Society for Krishna Consciousness, "Mahatma Gandhi | Biography, Accomplishments, & Facts", Indian Spirituality in the West: A Bibliographical Mapping, "Lectures and Discourses ~ Thoughts on the Gita", "After selling 580 mn books, Gita Press faces labour crisis", "F.A.T.E. This chapter is an overview for the remaining sixteen chapters of the Bhagavad Gita. This contrasts with a few competing schools of Indian religions which denied the concept of self, soul. He labels the first chapter "Arjuna Vishada Yogam" or the "Yoga of Arjuna's Dejection". According to Kashi Nath Upadhyaya, a Gita scholar, it is possible that a number of different individuals with the same name compiled different texts. [web 7][web 8], The 1995 novel by Steven Pressfield, and its adaptation as the 2000 golf movie The Legend of Bagger Vance by Robert Redford has parallels to the Bhagavad Gita, according to Steven J. Rosen. [210] Fundamentally, it means "what is right". It was translated into French in 1846 by Lassens and it was translated into Greek in 1848 by Galanos to mention but a few. [267][268][note 20] Vinoba Bhave has written the Geeta in Marathi language as Geetai i.e. [212] In Chapter 1, responding to Arjuna's despondency, Krishna asks him to follow his sva-dharma,[213] "the dharma that belongs to a particular man (Arjuna) as a member of a particular varna, (i.e., the kshatriya – the warrior varna)". Yes, you heard me right, writing Bhagavad Gita on rice grains. [83] It then presents different spiritual paths for each personality type respectively: the path of knowledge (jnana yoga), the path of devotion (bhakti yoga), the path of action (karma yoga), and the path of meditation (raja yoga). [211], Few verses in the Bhagavad Gita deal with dharma, according to the Indologist Paul Hacker, but the theme of dharma is important in it. [143][144] Chapter 11, states Eknath Eswaran, describes Arjuna entering first into savikalpa samadhi (a particular), and then nirvikalpa samadhi (a universal) as he gets an understanding of Krishna. Bhagavad Gita n Ashtavakra Gita! Back to Bhagavad Gita Quotes. [18][112][113] The chapter once again opens with Krishna continuing his discourse from the previous chapter. It is the song sung by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Shri Krishna. You must understand both! [97] While the shloka is the principal meter in the Gita, it does deploy other elements of Sanskrit prosody. A few people laughed, a few people cried. [126][127] Chapter 5 shows signs of interpolations and internal contradictions. It discusses who is a true yogi, and what it takes to reach the state where one harbors no malice towards anyone. [21] Who wrote the Bhagavad Gita. What Are the Steps of Presidential Impeachment? [349], The humble sage, by virtue of true knowledge, sees with equal vision a learned and gentle brahmana, a cow, an elephant, a dog and a dog-eater [outcaste], Nadkarni and Zelliot present the opposite view, citing early Bhakti saints of the Krishna-tradition such as the 13th-century Dnyaneshwar. "[323], The Bhagavad Gita has been highly praised, not only by prominent Indians including Mahatma Gandhi and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan,[324] but also by Aldous Huxley, Henry David Thoreau, J. Robert Oppenheimer,[325] Ralph Waldo Emerson, Carl Jung, Herman Hesse,[326][327] and Bülent Ecevit.[328]. Richard Davis tells the story of this venerable and enduring book, from its origins in ancient India to its reception today as a spiritual classic that has been translated into more than seventy-five languages. Desire for the fruits of work must never be your motive in working. [289], Keśava Kāśmīri Bhaṭṭa, a commentator of Dvaitādvaita Vedanta school, wrote a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita by the name Tattva-prakāśikā. [286][287], Madhva, a commentator of the Dvaita Vedanta school,[280] wrote a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita, which exemplifies the thinking of the "dualist" school (Dvaita Vedanta). [374] The teachings of the Gita on ahimsa are ambiguous, states Arvind Sharma, and this is best exemplified by the fact that Nathuram Godse stated the Gita as his inspiration to do his dharma after he assassinated Mahatma Gandhi. At the start of the Dharma Yuddha (righteous war) between Pandavas and Kauravas, Arjuna is filled with moral dilemma and despair about the violence and death the war will cause in the battle against his own kin. [125] Krishna answers that both are paths to the same goal, but the path of "selfless action and service" with inner renunciation is better. Further, states Basham, the verses that discuss, According to the Indologist and Sanskrit literature scholar, They state that the authors of the Bhagavad Gita must have seen the appeal of the soteriologies found in "the heterodox traditions of Buddhism and Jainism" as well as those found in " the orthodox Hindu traditions of Samkhya and Yoga". [2] He wonders if he should renounce and seeks Krishna's counsel, whose answers and discourse constitute the Bhagavad Gita. Oppenheimer later recalled that, while witnessing the explosion of the Trinity nuclear test, he thought of verses from the Bhagavad Gita (XI,12): दिवि सूर्यसहस्रस्य भवेद्युगपदुत्थिता यदि भाः सदृशी सा स्याद्भासस्तस्य महात्मनः ॥११- १२॥ Our very own Hyderabad ammayi named ‘Ramagiri Swarika’ has achieved this task of inscribing Bhagavad Gita on grains of rice. [362] Bakim Chandra Chatterji, the author of Vande Mataram – the national song of India, challenged orientalist literature on Hinduism and offered his interpretations of the Gita, states Ajit Ray. [178] According to Raju, the Gita supports this identity and spiritual monism, but as a form of synthesis with a personal God. Fact Check: Is the COVID-19 Vaccine Safe? [236], Liberation or moksha in Vedanta philosophy is not something that can be acquired. The Lord, states Chatterjee, created millions and millions of people, and he did not ordain dharma only for Indians [Hindus] and "make all the others dharma-less", for "are not the non-Hindus also his children"?

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